The average age of onset for “natural” menopause is 51. However, because of genetics, illness, or medical procedures, some women go through menopause before the age of 40. Menopause that occurs before this age, whether natural or induced, is known as “premature” menopause.
Of course menopause affects every woman in time, and although it’s not a disease, it can have a big effect on a woman’s health. In addition to dealing with hot flushes, mood swings, and other symptoms that accompany menopause, many women undergoing premature menopause have to cope with additional physical and emotional concerns.
For example, because menopause signals the end of a woman’s fertile years, a woman who wishes to get pregnant is likely to experience more trouble doing so.
What are the symptoms?
These are often the same as those experienced by women undergoing natural menopause and may include:
- Irregular or missed periods
- Periods that are heavier or lighter than usual
- Hot flushes
These symptoms are a sign that the ovaries are producing less oestrogen and progesterone and along with the above symptoms, some women may experience:
- Vaginal dryness (the vagina may also become thinner and less flexible)
- Bladder irritability and worsening of loss of bladder control (incontinence)
- Emotional changes (irritability, mood swings, mild depression)
- Dry skin, eyes, or mouth
- Decreased sex drive
In addition to the symptoms listed above, if you are under the age of 40 and experience any of the following conditions, you should see your doctor to determine whether you are undergoing premature menopause:
- You have undergone chemotherapy or radiation
- You or a family member has an autoimmune disorder such as hypothyroidism, Graves’ disease, or lupus
- You have unsuccessfully tried to become pregnant for more than a year
- Your mother or sister experienced premature menopause
How Is it diagnosed?
To diagnose premature menopause, your doctor will most likely perform a physical exam and draw blood to rule out other conditions, such as pregnancy and thyroid disease.
They may also order a test to measure your oestradiol levels. Low levels of oestradiol, a form of oestrogen, can indicate that your ovaries are starting to fail. When levels are below 30, it may signal that you are in menopause.
However, the most important test used to diagnose premature menopause is a blood test that measures the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) that causes your ovaries to produce oestrogen.
When your ovaries slow down their production of oestrogen, your levels of FSH increase. When your FSH levels rise above 40 mIU/mL, it usually indicates that you are in menopause.
Other health issues that can affect women in premature menopause
Like all menopausal women, women in premature menopause experience lowered oestrogen levels as the ovaries stop most of their production of this hormone. Low levels of oestrogen can lead to changes in a woman’s overall health and may increase her risk for certain medical conditions, such as osteoporosis.
Other health risks associated with the loss of oestrogen can include increased risk for colon and ovarian cancer, periodontal (gum) disease, tooth loss, and cataract formation.
However, compared with women who go through natural menopause, women undergoing premature menopause spend a greater portion of their lives without the protective benefits of their own oestrogen. This puts them at an even greater risk for the above mentioned menopause-related health problems.
Can it be reversed?
Not usually. Once menopause has set in, it is unlikely to be reversed.
How Is it treated?
The symptoms and health risks of premature menopause, as well as the emotional issues that may result from it, can be managed with the methods similar to those used for natural menopause.
Women dealing with infertility that is brought on by premature menopause may want to discuss their options in relation to their progesterone levels or specialists treatment.
If you feel you may be at risk from premature menopause, it is very helpful to take action and maintain hormone balance as well as you possibly can.
Although oestrogen levels definitely decline, so too does progesterone and it is the relationship and ratio of these that is critical for maintaining hormonal health and dealing with menopausal symptoms.
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